An adverb is a word that modifies (tell us more about) a verb or an adjective or any other adverb in a sentence.
Sara is laughing.
Sara is laughing loudly.

In the above example, the verb ‘laugh’ expresses an action. In the second sentence, the word ‘loudly’ is an adverb because it gives us more information about the verb ‘laugh’. In the first sentence, we come to know only about the action. But in the second sentence, due to the adverb ‘loudly’ we know more about (intensity of) action. We know that the voice of laughing is quite loud. Such a word that modifies (tells more about) a verb is called an adverb.

An adverb modifies a verb, an adjective or the other adverb in the sentence. Read the following examples.

  Adverb modifying a verb - Examples

He answered the question quickly.
She can speak Chinese fluently.
He treats his kids harshly.
She is talking nicely.
The officers behaved decently.
She goes to club daily.
He sometimes needs my help.
I will go to New York tomorrow.
He may come here.
She watches movies on holidays.

  An adverb modifying an adjective - Examples

See the examples, each bold word is an adverb while each underlined word is an adjective.

They were joyously happy.
The duration of class is exceedingly long.
The joke was truly funny.
This shirt is extremely nice.
We saw a badly damaged car on the road.
The movie was really interesting.

  An adverb modifying other adverb - Example

Read these examples, the bold word is adverb which modifies the other adverb (underlined)

They were laughing too loudly.
They started their married life very happily.
My brother drives his car very carelessly.
She responded too quickly.
He walked fast enough to reach the school in time.
She painted the wall pretty beautifully.

  Formation of adverbs

Most of the adverbs are made by adding “-ly” at the end of adjectives.
Examples: fluently, quickly, happily, immediately, easily, loudly, proudly, interestingly, e.t.c.

Few of the adverbs exist without having “-ly” at their ends.
Examples: too, very, late, here, close, straight, well, pretty, low, right, fast, deep, hard, far, high, hard, e.t.c

Types  of Adverbs
An adverb modifies a verb in various aspects, and on the basis of such aspects of modification adverbs are classified as follows

Adverb of manner: Happily, Sadly, Easily, Rudely, Loudly, Fluently, Rapidly, Angrily, Greedily, Wildly, etc
Adverb of Place: Here, There, Near, Somewhere, Outside, Inside, Ahead, High, Top, Bottom, etc
Adverb of time: Now, Then, Yesterday, Today, Tomorrow, Late, Early, Again, Tonight, Soon etc
Adverb of frequency: Sometimes, Often, Usually, Seldom, Frequently, Daily, Generally, Occasionally, Again and again, Never, etc

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