Past Perfect Tense

Past Perfect Tense is used to express two types of actions which occurred or completed in the past. It is usually used to express an action which occurred a long time ago in past. It gives a sense of completion of an activity in past.

e.g. She had sent me her picture an year ago.

It may also be used to state an action that occurred in the recent past, but if it is intended to convey a sense of completion of the action with reference to other activities taken place after the same action.

e.g. The patient had died before the doctor came.

Structure of Sentence:

Main verb:  Past Participle (3rd form of the verb) e.g. gone, written, etc
Auxiliary verbs: Had


  Subject + Auxiliary verb + Main verb + Object
  Subject + Had + Past Participle (3rd form of verb) + Object

She had undergone heart surgery in her childhood.
I had lost my camera.
She had cooked some food.
He had consumed a lot of alcohol.
They had shifted to a new home.
He had earned a lot of money.
She had appeared in the exam.
He had lent me his book.
They had bought a new car.
You had gone before I reached.
The patient had died before the doctor came.


  Subject + Auxiliary verb + NOT + Main verb + Object
  Subject + Had + Not + Past Participle + Object

He had not informed me about his illness.
He had not finished his work.
She had not applied for some job.
They had not cleaned their room.
I had not visited him.
She had not bought new dresses for the wedding party.
You had not helped him when he needed youy help.
He had not met me when I was in the college.
We had not finished our work when he came here.
I had not told him the truth when he asked me.


  Auxiliary verb + Subject + Main verb + Object
  Had + Subject + Past Participle + Object

Had you completed your task?
Had he prepared himself for the exam?
Had she prepared some food for the kids?
Had I thought about my future?
Has he appeared in the exam?
Has she waited for you?
Had you bought a calculator before you attempted exam of mathematics?
Had you taken medicine when you were ill?
Had she watered the plant before it dried?
Had they quit smoking when doctor advised them?